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    LW-D:

        SMART SALIVARY TEST STRIP, empowered by smartphone APP

        This disposable POC paper device can be used for diabetes prevention(early diagnostics) and management in the end-user friendly way.

  •   No blood
  •   No needle
  •   No pain
  •   No infection
  •   Portable
  •   At home measurement
  •   Data storage in the cloud. 

 

 key knowledge

  Diabetes and Pre-diabetes

        Diabetes is a global epidemic and the biggest challenge confronting Australia’s health system and estimated to affect 552 million people globally by 2030. Diabetes is the major contributor to other chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and chronic kidney disease and is the leading cause of blindness in adults, yet almost half of diabetes cases remain undiagnosed. In both the US and China 1 in 2 adults have diabetes or pre-diabetes.

        Pre-diabetes is associated with the simultaneous presence of insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction—abnormalities that start before glucose changes are detectable. Current care models focus on the treatment of diabetes, however, greatly improved outcomes and increased efficiency are driven from preventive measures. Type 2 diabetes (>90% of all diabetes) can be prevented if pre-diabetes is accurately detected and properly managed. Health complications of type 2 diabetes often begin during the prediabetic phase and before glucose changes are detectable. Those who are able to maintain adequate insulin secretion are likely to remain prediabetic or even revert to normoglycaemia. Those in whom insulin secretion fails are likely to progress to frank type 2 diabetes.

         Preventing people from developing type 2 diabetes will substantially reduce the risk of complications such as cardiovascular disease, blindness, and kidney failure. Strong international evidence shows that type 2 diabetes can be prevented by the accurate management of dysregulated blood glucose and insulin.

         There is a strong rationale to screen patients for pre-diabetes and dysregulated insulin secretion.

 

  Insulin and Blood glucose

        In healthy persons, normal insulin concentration in blood serum under a fasting condition is ∼50 pM, and could be risen up to 269 pM. Insulin concentrations of < 50 pM (7.2 µIU/mL) and  >70 pM (10.1 µIU/mL) signify T1D and onset of T2D, respectively.

        The fasting concentration of blood glucose in healthy individuals is in the range of 2.5–7.3 mM, and diabetes is diagnosed with a glucose level of >7.3 mM (130 mg dL−1 ).

 

  References:

        M.S. Winzell, E.M. Wulff, G.S. Olsen, P. Sauerberg, C.F. Gotfredsen, B. Ahren, Improved insulin sensitivity and islet function after PPARd activation in diabetic db/db mice, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 2010, 626, 297e305.

        G. Freckmann, S. Hagenlocher, A. Baumstark, N. Jendrike, R. C. Gillen, K. Rössner and C. Haug, Continuous glucose profiles in healthy subjects under everyday life conditions and after different meals. J. Diabetes Sci. Technol., 2007, 1, 695–703.

        D. M. Muoio and C. B. Newgard, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol., Mechanisms of disease: Molecular and metabolic mechanisms of insulin resistance and beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes. 2008, 9, 193–205.

        C. Weyer, R. L. Hanson, P. A. Tataranni, C. Bogardus and R. E. Pratley, A high fasting plasma insulin concentration predicts type 2 diabetes independent of insulin resistance: evidence for a pathogenic role of relative hyperinsulinemia. Diabetes, 2000, 49, 2094–2101

        F. C. Goetz, L. R. French, W. Thomas, R. L. Gingerich and J. P. Clements, Are specific serum insulin levels low in impaired glucose tolerance and type II diabetes?: Measurement with a radioimmunoassay blind to proinsulin, in the population of Wadena, Minnesota Metabolism, 1995, 44, 1371–1376.

        Fabre B, Maccallini G, Oneto A, Gonzalez D, Hirschler V, Aranda C, Berg G. Measurement of fasting salivary insulin and its relationship with serum insulin in children. Endocr Connect 2012; 1: 58-61

        DiNicolantonio, J. J.; Bhutani, J.; OKeefe, J. H.; Crofts, C.; Postprandial insulin assay as the earliest biomarker for diagnosing pre-diabetes, type 2 diabetes and increased cardiovascular risk. Archives of Disease in childhood: 2017